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Read the following excerpt from the op-ed by famed UC Berkeley sociologist Arlie Hochschild titled the “outsources self.” What would the “Moral Markets” and “Relational Economic” perspectives say about the author’s negative view on paid personal services?

by | Oct 16, 2022 | Economics

 

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Instructions: Each essay must begin with a precise word count. (I.e. list at the top how many words are in your essay, there is a word count tool on all word processors).
Answers for the essays must be between 400-600 words EACH. An answer that exceeds the word limit will be penalized.
Each question has a number of parts, make sure you answer all of them. Your answers should refer to the texts we have read and discussions we have had in class. When you cite or refer to the text give page numbers.
ADVICE: You have only so much words so you need to be concise, to the point, and clear about the argument(s) you are making. Be careful to answer the questions being asked and not a different one. We encourage you to work together but you must write your papers individually.
If the quiz will not let you submit without answering all 5 of the essays please put “n/a” in the two essays that you chose not to answer. – Please only cite from uploaded documents
1. Read the following excerpt from the op-ed by famed UC Berkeley sociologist Arlie Hochschild titled the “outsources self.” What would the “Moral Markets” and “Relational Economic” perspectives say about the author’s negative view on paid personal services? Students must clearly understand what each perspective says about the relationship between morality/intimacy and markets and how they would agree/disagree with the author of the excerpt. Finally, the student must develop an argument about what kinds of questions these perspectives would ask in a study of “paid personal services.” The full article can be found at: https://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/06/opinion/sunday/the-outsourced-life.htmlLinks to an external site.. “The explosion in the number of available personal services says a great deal about changing ideas of what we can reasonably expect from whom. In the late 1940s, there were 2,500 clinical psychologists licensed in the United States. By 2010, there were 77,000 — and an additional 50,000 marriage and family therapists. In the 1940s, there were no life coaches; in 2010, there were 30,000. The last time I Googled “dating coach,” 1,200,000 entries popped up. “Wedding planner” had over 25 million entries. The newest entry, Rent-a-Friend, has 190,000 entries.
WE’VE put a self-perpetuating cycle in motion. The more anxious, isolated and time-deprived we are, the more likely we are to turn to paid personal services. To finance these extra services, we work longer hours. This leaves less time to spend with family, friends and neighbors; we become less likely to call on them for help, and they on us. And, the more we rely on the market, the more hooked we become on its promises: Do you need a tidier closet? A nicer family picture album? Elderly parents who are truly well cared for? Children who have an edge in school, on tests, in college and beyond? If we can afford the services involved, many if not most of us are prone to say, sure, why not?
And the market expands to fill increasing demand. The director of research and development at the company eHarmony, for example, the champion of the marriage market, has envisioned expanding the company’s operations into later stages of adult life, and into workplace and college relations. EHarmony now operates in Canada, Brazil and Australia, as well as across Europe. The more members of diverse communities hunger for counsel, comfort, dates, support, the more outfits will spring up to extend services for those who can pay. The cycle takes another turn.
Paradoxically, the more we depend on market services — and market logic — the greater its subtle but real power to undermine our intimate life… Focusing attention on the destination, we detach ourselves from the small — potentially meaningful — aspects of experience. Confining our sense of achievement to results, to the moment of purchase, so to speak, we unwittingly lose the pleasure of accomplishment, the joy of connecting to others and possibly, in the process, our faith in ourselves.” 2. In what ways is Fourcade and Healy’s “moral markets” perspective compatible with the “markets as fields” and “performativity” perspectives?
3. This question has two parts. First, in your own words, what is a market device and what makes them performative? Second, according to Mackenzie, in the first and second period of options trading what made the theory of Black-Sholes “generic performative,” and what made it “effective performative” in the third?
4. How are the “moral markets,” “relational economic action,” and “markets as fields” perspectives each different from other ways of thinking about the economy? Consider how, when introducing their respective ideas, the authors of each perspective attempt to differentiate themselves from alternative visions of economic action. What are those alternatives? 5. Choose TWO of three examples discussed by Fligstein (U.S. Steel, U.S. Biotech, or Apple/IBM) to explain Fligsteins ideas of “Markets as Fields.” You must consider all the following six dimensions:
Who were the players in these examples?
What was the uncertainty faced by the players in these examples?
Who were the dominant and who were challengers?
What “rules of the game” were they fighting over?
When were the markets emerging, stable, or in crisis?
What “conceptions of control” were competing and which one won?

 

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