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325 Words on – Explain the relationship between blood pressure, resistance, and

by | Jun 22, 2022 | Anatomy


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325 Words on – Explain the relationship between blood pressure, resistance, and flow; three factors that determine resistance to blood flow
125 word peer respone to-
Topic: Causes and effects of Edema
The term Edema means “swelling” from either injury or inflammation that can affect all parts of the body. There are several types of edema within the body. Pulmonary edema is a condition where fluid builds up in the air sacs of the lungs causing difficulty breathing which is generally caused by congestive heart failure. Lymphedema is swelling in the extremities, arms and legs, and due to lymph node damage which can be caused by several factors such as medical treatments as well as chemotherapies. Peripheral edema is a condition that affects the lower extremities including the legs, feet, and ankles, and is usually attributed to issues with the kidneys, lymph nodes, and circulatory system. Pedal edema is a common disorder that affects older people and pregnant women. Fluids accumulate in the lower extremities making it difficult to walk and caused by either sitting or standing in one place for an extended period of time. Cerebral edema is a condition where fluid accumulates in the brain caused by trauma or a tumor. Lastly, macular edema is a condition where fluid accumulates in the eye due to vessel damage in the retina. These edema conditions can also be triggered by liver disease, allergic reactions, low albumin, medications, and other illnesses where tissue leakage is inevitable and will require medical treatment. (Saladin, 2020) Critical Thinking
Edema is a serious issue however, there are many ways to treat it. Mostly, doctors tell patients to limit salt intake and increase the number of fluids. In addition, it is important to exercise every day to help circulation. In addition, patients are given diuretics to help reduce the amount of fluid in the body causing these ailments. Diet is so important to overall health, therefore, eating whole foods rather than processed will help with edema due to the amount of sodium in the products that can contribute to edema. Fruits and vegetables, as well as water intake, will help however, some of these ailments require hospitalization. 125 word peer response to- Research:
Urination is ensured by the sympathetic pathways the originate in the upper lumbar spinal cord. Between acts of urination, it is important for the detrusor to relax and the urethral sphincters to remain closed. The detrusor relaxes which allows the bladder to fill. The sphincters will contract to ensure that the urine is retained in the bladder until voluntarily voided (Saladin et al. 2020 p.893). The male internal internal urethral sphincter is controlled through postganglionic fibers that travel through the hypogastric nerve which also travel through the detrusor. The external urethral sphincter is held closed by somatic motor fibers that travel from the sacral spinal cord via the pudendal nerve to the sphincter (Saladin et al. 2020 p.893). The act of urination, also known as micturition, is different between infants, younger children, and adults. In infants and younger children (Where there isn’t much voluntary control), urination is controlled by a relatively simple spinal micturition reflex. When their bladder fills to about 200ml, stretch receptors are excited within the bladder wall (Saladin et al. 2020 p.893). Signals are then sent by waves of sensory fibers in the pelvic nerve to the sacral spinal cord. Efferent signals from the spinal cord now travel back to the bladder muscles by ways of motor fibers in the pelvic nerve and a parasympathetic ganglion in the bladder wall (Saladin et al. 2020 p.893). Now, the output from the ganglion stimulates the detrusor to contract. When there is no voluntary control over urination, just like infants or small children, this reflex alone releases urine from the bladder (Saladin et al. 2020. p.893). People with spinal cord injuries that disconnect the brain from the lower spinal cord also do not have voluntary control over urination. This is called urinary incontinence. This does not just occur infants and people with spinal cord injuries. Aging and other diseases can result in urinary incontinence (Saladin et al. 2020 p.893). As one gets past the infant stage, they gain more voluntary control over urination. In both males and females, signals from the stretch receptors of the bladder ascend the spinal cord to a nucleus in the pons called the micturition center (Saladin et al. 2020 p.893). This nucleus integrates information about bladder tension with information from other brain centers such as the amyglada and cerebrum. These brain centers can prompt urination due to fear, which is initiated by the amyglada, or even inhibited by cerebral awareness that the circumstances are inappropriate for urination (Saladin et al. 2020 p.894). The initial contraction of the detrusor raises pressure in the bladder. This is signaled through the fibers from the micturition that descend from the spinal cord through the reticulospinal tracts. These fibers inhibit sympathetic neurons that innervate and constrict the males internal urethral sphincter. Others can descend farther to the sacral spinal cord and excite the parasympathetic neurons that relax the internal sphincter and stimulate the detrusor (Saladin et al. 2020 p.894). When the detrusor initially contracts, the pressure in the bladder rises and these stretch receptors excite and start the process of a positive feedback loop. The bladder contraction will intensify and urination will continue (Saladin et al. 2020 p.894). One final process must be overcome during urination; that being the external urethral sphincter. Here, nerve fibers from the cerebral cortex descend by way of the corticospinal tracts and inhibit sacral somatic motor neurons that normally keep that sphincter constricted (Saladin et al. 2020 p.894). This voluntary component of micturition that gives a person conscious control if when to urinate. This also plays part in stopping urination midstream consciously. In females, The external urethral sphincter may be the only mechanism for urine retention. The strength of the voluntary pelvic floor muscles controls retention (Saladin et al. 2020 p.985). Pregnancy and obesity can alter the strength of the pelvic floor muscles causing urinary incontinence. It is known that urinary incontinence is more common in females than males. Critical Thinking: After researching the topic of “controlling the void of urine” I had no idea how complex urination actually was within the human body. I did know that voluntary control developed as one matured and grew older out of the infant/toddler stage. The signals and how the sphincters open and close and how the bladders contracts were all new to me. I find it interesting how the body can send signals to not urinate at inappropriate times and how it can send signals to urinate when one is frightened or to stop urination midstream if needed. I also learned that males have two sphincters, internal and external, to help with urine retention while females only have one external. This also makes sense as to why females are more susceptible to urinary incontinence along with other factors.


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