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No quotations are allowed. 1. (6pts) Domesticated plants are genetically differ
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1. (6pts) Domesticated plants are genetically different from their wild relatives. An example of this can be seen in the fruits of an apple tree. Wild apple trees produce a bitter tasting fruit, yet the domesticated versions derived from wild populations produce delicious sweet apples. Explain the difference between wild and domesticated apples by defining domestication and describing the difference between artificial and natural selection.
2. (6pts) Monoculture farming is a common agricultural practice, especially in the U.S., which has about 440 million acres being cultivated for monoculture.
a. What is monoculture and why has modern agriculture encouraged it’s spread?
b. What are the dangers of monoculture?
c. Provide an example of an agricultural disaster that was the result of monocultural practises.
3. (6pts) A researcher studying a wheat field suggests that the soil may lack nitrogen.
a. What observable symptoms on the wheat leaves suggest a nitrogen deficiency?
b. What trait might you try to transfer to wheat if you were developing a transgenic wheat plant that could grow in soils poor in nitrogen? Explain why you have selected this trait.
4. (5pts) Many essential oils have antibacterial or antifungal properties.
a. List and describe two plants that contain useful secondary metabolites, like essential oils.
b. How might you investigate whether or not a plant extract can be used as an antiseptic?
5. (6pts) Caffeine is produced only by plants, yet it has profound effects to the nervous system of animals.
a. Provide two examples of plants that produce caffeine.
b. In those two plants, what parts of the plant has the highest concentration of caffeine?
c. Describe why these plants may have evolved to produce neurologically active compounds, such as caffeine.
6. (7pts) Algae are known to have a variety of photosynthetic pigments.
a. Formulate a hypothesis for why a variety of photosynthetic pigments have evolved in algae compared to the land plants?
b. Identify two photosynthetic pigments found in algae (other than chlorophyll) and describe the type of algae they are found in.
7. (4pts) Fungi are classified in their own kingdom, and studies show that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants, however certain features of fungi seem plantlike.
a. What characteristics of fungi are similar to animals and which are plant-like?