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Please read chapter 10 in the attached book . Include page number in every in-te

by | Apr 28, 2022 | Other

 

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Please read chapter 10 in the attached book . Include page number in every in-text citation.
The book is attached.
Please reply to the following:
The oversight role of the U.S. Congress related to the Intelligence Community is vital and is one of the most important responsibilities. Congress approaches intelligence oversight and oversight issues similarly to the perspective of the executive branch. Congressional oversight is defined as “the review, monitoring, and supervision of federal agencies, programs and policy implementation.” (Principles of Congressional Oversight, n.d.) Furthermore, thanks to congressional oversight the legislative branch is provided with an opportunity to review and check the executive branch and its agencies. (Principles of Congressional Oversight, n.d) Congressional oversight is mentioned in the Constitution. In Article I, Section 8, paragraph 18, it is stated that, “Congress shall have Power . . . To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.” (Lowenthal, 2019, p.284) With Congress having the power to make “all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution” comes the power to demand reports from the executive branch on any subject that can be legislated. (Lowenthal, 2019, p.284) Congress has developed many agencies with a specific purpose and due to that Congress has the right to oversee if these agencies are doing what they’re supposed to. Congress funds for these agencies so it makes sense for them to examine them which provides a basis for oversight. In general, congressional oversight is being able to obtain access to information that is held by the executive branch which can be relevant to the role of government. Intelligence oversight is also mentioned in the Intelligence Oversight Act (1980). The Intelligence Oversight Act states that the two intelligence committees must be kept “fully and currently informed of all intelligence activities carried out by or on behalf of the United States including any significant anticipated activity.” (Lowenthal, 2019, p.284) Along with this, the act calls for timely reports on illegal activity or anything causing intelligence failure. These intelligence failures can be identified as “(1)large-scale and likely systematic loss or disclosure of classified intelligence; (2) major interruptions in or loss of collection capabilities; (3) major analytical errors that can have a significant effect on U.S. policies; and (4) others.” (Lowenthal, 2019, p.284) Lowenthal mentions that the issue with Congress is its wish to been seen and treated by the executives as an equal branch of the government. This isn’t an easy feat because the executive branch only has one voice which is the president meanwhile Congress has above 500 members. This becomes a problem because the differences leads towards people beginning to question on whether Congress constitutional authority is effective
Please reply to the following:
The oversight function of Congress is the one that has the greatest effect on the allocation of intelligence funds. There has been some discussion about the lack of openness in public spending, which has been brought up. According to the Constitution, a public money account must be made available for public examination on a regular basis for the benefit of the general public. Consecutive governments have been able to assert that withholding information regarding intelligence spending is justified on the basis of this vague concept. It should be repealed from the Constitution the obligation for a financial statement to be published. They wanted only the annual intelligence budget, not the entire budget, to be transferred to them (Lowenthal, p. 297, 2019). This is a reference to the fundamental dispute over the intelligence budget, which has raised worries about the national security interests of the United States in recent years. What’s more, the attempts at disclosure not only generate rifts among lawmakers in both houses but also push the DNI to divulge a quantity in the NIP that is sufficient to cover all of the federal budget’s needs. The DNI and the Department of Defense have expressed no interest in expanding public disclosure of how intelligence monies are spent, either by activity or by the agency (Lowenthal, p. 297, 2019).

 

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