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APA Style – Double space, font size 12. Below you will see a summary from Chapt
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APA Style – Double space, font size 12.
Below you will see a summary from Chapter 15 – Developmental Psychopathology
Read the following summary (or use your textbook) and submit a research paper that is at least 4 full pages pertaining to any or all of the topics below. It may be necessary to research other sources in addition to the summary below to complete the assignment.
Be sure to include a cover page, 4 full pages of research information pertaining to the topics below, and a reference page. Total pages should be at least 6 including the cover page and the reference page.
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15-1. What Makes Development Abnormal?
To diagnose psychological disorders, clinicians may consider broad criteria such as statistical deviance, maladaptiveness, and personal distress and apply DSM-5 criteria to diagnose specific disorders based on their symptoms.
Developmental psychopathology is concerned with the origins and course of maladaptive behavior, contrasts with a medical model of psychopathology, and grapples with nature–nurture, continuity–discontinuity, and universality–context-specificity issues.
Developmental problems and disorders that originate in childhood are often a product of diathesis–stress, affect many youngsters, often predict continuing problems in adolescence and adulthood, and must be understood in their social and cultural context.
15-2. The Infant
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social and communication impairments and by restricted and repetitive interests and behavior. It is genetically influenced, involves atypical early brain growth and later underconnectivity of brain areas, and responds well to early and intensive behavioral training.
Infants who have been maltreated, separated from their attachment figures, or raised by a depressed caregiver may display symptoms of depression.
15-3. The Child
Many childhood disorders can be categorized as externalizing (acting out) or internalizing (bottling up) problems.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder involves inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity, often continues into adulthood, and can be treated most effectively through a combination of stimulant drugs and behavioral intervention.
Major depressive disorder and suicidal behavior can occur during early childhood; depression manifests itself somewhat differently in childhood and tends to recur but can be treated using therapies such as Parent–Child Interaction Therapy.
15-4. The Adolescent
Adolescents are more vulnerable than children but no more vulnerable than adults to psychological disorders; 20% or so at any given time experience the “storm and stress” of a psychological disorder and many more engage in risky problem behaviors as they seek to complete developmental tasks of adolescence with raging hormones and reward-seeking but immature brains.
As adolescent substance use illustrates, the developmental pathway toward substance use disorders begins with a genetic predisposition and a cascade of parent and peer influences starting in childhood.
Anorexia nervosa arises when a genetically predisposed female who lives in a society that values the thin ideal experiences social pressures to be thin and stressful life events.
The risks of depression rise during adolescence, especially among females. Adolescents, often in a cry for help, are more likely to attempt but less likely to commit suicide than adults, older white men being the group most likely to commit suicide.
15-5. The Adult
Young adults experience both more stressful life events and more psychological disorders, including depression, than older adults.
Diagnosing depression among older adults can be tricky if their symptoms are attributed to aging, chronic disease, or dementia; older adults have low rates of diagnosable depression but 15–25% suffer symptoms of depression.
Dementia, now called major neurocognitive disorder, is a progressive deterioration in neural functioning associated with significant cognitive decline that increases steeply with age. Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and other irreversible dementias, must be carefully distinguished from correctible conditions such as reversible dementia, delirium, and depression.