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Ireland was hit by a potato fungus beginning in 1845. What does the “Great Famine of 1845-1849” reveal concerning the living conditions of peasants in Europe in the mid-19th Century?

by | Jan 26, 2022 | Uncategorized


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Question 1 (2 points)
The creation of the railroad system throughout the Western world was based not only on the invention of a heavy-duty steam engine, but also textile machines, new ways of making iron, and the hard work of laborers who built the roads.
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Question 2 (2 points)
Many governments established “Royal Societies” or academies that supported scientific collaboration within each nation.
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Question 3 (2 points)
Ireland was hit by a potato fungus beginning in 1845. What does the “Great Famine of 1845-1849” reveal concerning the living conditions of peasants in Europe in the mid-19th Century?
Question 3 options:
It reveals that rural areas of Europe remained vulnerable to poor harvests and shortages, largely due to over-population, poverty, and rudimentary farming techniques and land use.
It reveals that Ireland was ill-suited to growing potatoes, which the Irish had become dependent on over the years. Irish farmers should have planted grain and relied on dairy cattle. The peasants were ignorant of what should have been their best land use.
It reveals that weather conditions worsened over the years of the 1840s, delivering too much rain to Ireland, which caused the fungus to appear. The Irish didn’t use proper draining techniques.
It reveals that the Irish had too few people working the farms of Ireland. Nearly 75% of the population had migrated to South Africa and this left potatoes lying in the fields, which caused the blight.
Question 4 (2 points)
The American Revolution was one largely based on Enlightenment ideals.
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Question 5 (2 points)
The audience of the Enlightenment – those living in urban environments in the 18th Century – had achieved a level of wealth that freed them from the need to search for basic sustenance, which means that they had the time to read the novels, political tracts, essays, and newspapers that helped to spread Enlightenment ideas rather than searching for basic food or other needs.
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Question 6 (2 points)
Two men are often identified as helping to set the rules and standards of practice for modern science – Sir Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes. What rules/standards did they advocate?
Question 6 options:
They believed that one should first read what Plato or Aristotle wrote about a subject and only if that did not make sense begin experimenting with new ideas.
The beginnings of the scientific method of beginning with a question, creating a hypothesis based on knowledge and observation, and then performing experiments to test the thesis.
The idea that all answers to all questions could be found in nature through observation and notation. Conceptually, one could sit and simply watch the activity at a lake and make notes, for example, to understand the workings of fish and birds.
All of the above.
Question 7 (2 points)
Nicolaus Copernicus tried for years to reconcile his theories with that of Ptolemy and Aristotle, but could not do so and finally published his On the revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres shortly before his death?
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Question 8 (2 points)
King Louis XVI – the king of France during the beginning stage of the French Revolution – was an extremely powerful monarch who held complete power over the nobility and raised taxes on the poor to pay for his lavish parties.
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Question 9 (2 points)
A number of kings or queens in Eastern Europe during the 18th Century can be described as ruling with “Enlightened Absolutism.” What is Enlightened Absolutism as defined by your textbook?
Question 9 options:
The continuation of past practices of strong rule by a new generation of rulers who, themselves, were well educated. Nothing changed for the citizens under their rule.
A reign of a queen or king who established new democratic reforms in their countries, giving the right to hold assemblies and vote to all landholders. Eastern Europe was the first to see constitutional monarchies during the 18th century.
A term used for rulers of the 18th Century who constantly warred with each other for territory, but used new tactics in war and the latest technologies from Western Europe to fight in an “enlightened” manner.
While continuing to be absolutist in the sense that they, alone, ruled their nations, they centralized their administrations and made their governments more efficient through “reason,” and often brought educational and legal reform that eased the burdens of the peasants and the middle class.
Question 10 (2 points)
The Industrial Revolution started in England. What was it about England that made it a good location for the creation of new industry?
Question 10 options:
It had been the center of banking during the Renaissance and its banks contained 95% of the known gold in the world at the time. This gold provided the necessary capital for new businesses.
It had tremendous wheat and barley harvests beginning in 1750 and into the early 1800s. The British used this wheat to barter for iron ore to use for its machines.
With a large empire that provided it with goods, a large navy to protect its merchant shipping, significant credit institutions, an excellent transportation system, and raw supplies like coal the British were well placed to construct, finance, and transport finished goods and services that were essential to the Industrial Revolution.
None of the Above.
uestion 11 (2 points)
The Industrial Revolution was different in England than in Continental Europe. Continental Europe trailed England, in part because of war and the number of political entities. After 1815, Continental Europe started to catch up. Why?
Question 11 options:
Industrial spies from France and Germany copied English designs and brought them to the Continent, building new factories and roads.
Population growth provided a good labor pool, new railroad and canal building efforts opened up trade and encouraged new manufacturing methods, and governments often supported new industrial efforts.
A large number of peasants departed for America, opening up land for development.
All of the above
Question 12 (2 points)
Rapid economic and demographic growth in northwestern Europe, the home of Enlightenment ideas, was made possible by:
Question 12 options:
Gold and silver mined in the Americas and shipped to Greece, Rome, and Spain, which made their owners rich and therefore able to buy more food.
A decrease in the poor population through death and disease, which increased the population ratio of the middle and upper classes and allowed them to have more food.
Cheaper food due to better farming techniques and imports of potatoes and corn from the Americas and declines in mortality from infectious diseases that was probably due to improved sanitation.
All of the Above
Question 13 (2 points)
Great Britain was the preeminent industrial power until 1900 – Germany, France, and the United States never really developed an industrial base, relying on England to supply them with finished goods while they shipped raw goods and materials to Britain.
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Question 14 (2 points)
The Industrial Revolution aided in the creation of a middle class. What were some of the distinctions of the middle class compared to the poor or the nobility?
Question 14 options:
There were no differences between the nobility and the middle class. The nobility was the middle class.
They were often managers, lawyers, doctors, or industrial owners who married for companionship rather than power, educated their children, and often hired at least one servant.
The middle class lived in extremely expensive homes with gilded fixtures, preferred the single life more than marriage until age 50, avoided public life –especially politics, and sought profit more than anything else.
All of the above
Question 15 (2 points)
The first phase of the Industrial Revolution (1760-1850) could be summed up as cheaper and better clothes, cheaper and better metals, and faster travel.
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uestion 16 (2 points)
Galileo refused to believe in a Copernican universe (sun at the center) and instead continued to advocate for the older tradition.
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Question 17 (2 points)
The intellectual origins of the 17th Century Scientific Revolution, according to your text, were:
Question 17 options:
A government reaction to a series of celestial events, including a comet, several meteorites, and weird lights in the sky, that caused a panic among the population. The French government set up a committee and this group led the scientific revolution.
Several threads contributed including the belief in God and the search for understanding Him, Renaissance Humanists who translated Greek texts on the natural work, the collaboration between artisans and intellectuals that began in the Renaissance, and the voyages of discovery that brought new plants and other specimens back to Europe.
There was no real “revolution” in science, it was really the spread of Medieval ideas and concepts from monks who began traveling around the world on Spanish and French ships.
None of the above.
Question 18 (2 points)
What were the most significant reasons for the French Revolution?
Question 18 options:
Several poor harvests raised bread prices, the peasants paid numerous taxes and did not see any sign of relief, the debts from France’s support of the American Revolution limited tax revenues, and Enlightenment ideas helped to organize the middle classes against the monarchy.
French nobility attempted to place peasants into a formal type of slave system in which they could buy and sell anyone who inhabited their lands and take any property or land held by the peasants. While the law was vetoed by the King, the peasants became angry at the thought of becoming slaves.
Communists who wanted an economic revolution organized small groups of peasants to assassinate the king and his ministers. On the night of July 4, 1900 they successfully attacked and killed all of the top nobility & started the Revolution.
All of the Above
Question 19 (2 points)
Napoleon Bonaparte revised the legal code and the educational structure of France.
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Question 20 (2 points)
The Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century included a total rejection of a belief in God among all scientists in Europe and led directly to attacks on Monasteries in France?
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